Women with PCOS are at risk for the following:
- Endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining) are possible, due to overaccumulation of uterine lining, and also lack of progesterone resulting in prolonged stimulation of uterine cells by estrogen. It is not clear if this risk is directly due to the syndrome or from the associated obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperandrogenism.
- Insulin resistance/Type II diabetes. A review published in 2010 concluded that women with PCOS had an elevated prevalence of insulin resistance and type II diabetes, even when controlling for body mass index (BMI).PCOS also makes a woman, particularly if obese, prone togestational diabetes.
- High blood pressure, particularly if obese and/or during pregnancy.
- Depression/Depression with anxiety.
- Dyslipidemia – disorders of lipid metabolism — cholesterol and triglycerides. PCOS patients show decreased removal of atherosclerosis-inducing remnants, seemingly independent of insulin resistance/Type II diabetes.
- Cardiovascular disease,with a meta-analysis estimating a 2-fold risk of arterial disease for women with PCOS relative to women without PCOS, independent of BMI.
- Weight gain.
- Sleep apnea, particularly if obesity is present.
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, again particularly if obesity is present.
- Acanthosis nigricans (patches of darkened skin under the arms, in the groin area, on the back of the neck.
- Autoimmune thyroiditis, Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce the risk of some of these, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
- Glucose intolerance.
- Glucose-to-Insulin Ratio, being very high or very low depending upon BMI.
- Abnormal levels of SHBG, leptin and adiponectin.
- Metabolic dysfunction.
- Systemic inflamation.
- Endothelial dysfunction.